In this video, I provide a complete tutorial on how to assemble your own stair lighting, featuring block diagram, code overview, testing and final layout. Code and schematic can be found on this page.
Table of Contents
Frequently Asked Questions
The stairs at night were really dark. It was bad enough that we had to put lights next to it. However, these lights shined in your face and not the stairs. I wanted to light up the actual steps. I really thought the German video was cool, so I aimed for that animation as my goal.
I chose the ATmega328P firstly because it was on the Arduino. It had the hardware SPI, a ShiftPWM library and good enough speed. If I was mass-producing these, I would probably have chosen a microcontroller with less pins.
I had some choices when looking for “person detectors”. I could have used laser sensors, IR beam sensors like they use at the store, or the PIR motion detectors. I initially wanted to use the laser sensors because they show absolute presence vs just motion like the PIR sensors, but they were too finicky. The laser sensors had to be positioned just right on the photodiode, and I didn’t know where to buy the IR beams. The PIR motion detectors actually work very well.
Update 2014-11-09 Since the time of this post there has been a new product in the Adafruit store called a “laser break beam sensor”. If the delay on the motion detectors is completely intolerable then you could try one of these: http://www.adafruit.com/products/2122
For output devices, it was clear that I wanted to use the strip LEDs vs the regular point LEDs. I saw some previous implementations like this one and gawked because they didn’t even light up the stairs, only the walls next to the stairs!
Code that runs on the microcontroller may be found on Github: https://github.com/androng/Shift-stairs
Here is a video to help you run the code:
I laid out a board but never had it printed. It should be completely functional, but have a look before you print it, especially the minimum distance between traces etc.
EDIT 2014-10-28: I have finally tested the board and it almost works! This was one of my first PCBs and I messed up in my definition of the 2N7000. As a result, you have to solder in the transistors backwards in version 1.0 of the PCB. In version 1.1 this is fixed.
The small rectangle on the left side is a matching through-hole resistor for the photoresistor. I recommend populating the LED headers at the bottom with 2×40 male headers and using black female jumper wires to connect the LEDs. Or you could modify the board to make screw terminals.
Version 1.3: https://oshpark.com/shared_projects/2aD8JaBR
- Fixed “photoresistor always reads zero” problem
- Added footprint for voltage regulator just in case someone fries the one on the Arduino Pro Mini
- Fixed backwards transistor problem
- Added more labels for power, motion detectors
- Added labels for MOSFET source, gate and drain just in case you want to use a different MOSFET.
When you solder everything correctly, this should happen:
You will need:
1x Arduino Pro Mini 5V, find on eBay
5m 3528 white LED strip, find on eBay
1x 12V 3A Power supply, find on eBay
PCB, $30 from OSH Park, see Schematic section for link
Enough wire for your stairs, you can also buy similar from Home Depot
2x PIR sensor or Laser sensor
20x 2N7000 MOSFET or any other pin-compatible MOSFET. SOT-23 packages work well on the PCB too.
1x Single row female header
1x Double row male pin header
1x Single row male pin header
1x (Photoresistor and 10k resistor) (optional)
1x Switch (optional)
1x Screw terminal
2x 16-pin socket
2x 74HC595 Shift register
1x (LM7805 regulator and 0.1uF capacitors) (mandatory)
20x Female Jumper wires (one item comes with several wires)
I recommend buying 2 or 3x everything in the “PCB parts” section in case you decide to start over.
Assembly video and more detailed instructions coming in the future when I have time
- Assemble Arduino Pro Mini–solder male headers below on the long sides and above on the short sides
- Set jumper on USB-to-UART to 5V
- Connect USB cable > USB-to-UART > Arduino Pro Mini and program it with Blink sketch
- Assemble PCB (refer to photo in PCB section)
- Solder female headers in the “Arduino Pro Mini” slot
- Solder LED+ and LED- with double row male headers
- Solder side pins like “motion” “switch” etc with male headers
- Solder in sockets for shift registers and insert the shift registers
- Insert Arduino Pro Mini with FTDI header in the middle of the PCB
- (optional) Solder in regulator and capacitors
- Assemble LEDs
- Cut a female jumper wire in half
- Put heatshrink on the half-jumpers
- Solder half-jumpers to a 2-conductor wire, then solder 2 conductor wire to LED.
- Connect your jumpers to the PCB male headers
- Repeat step 5 for however many stairs you have
Frequently Asked Questions
How do I adjust the number of steps? Only nine of the steps turn on.
One of my lights doesn’t turn on/off or it flickers.
My lights stay on and never turn off.
One of my motion detectors does not trigger or has many false positives.
My choice of female headers as connectors for the LEDs was really bad. The headers are very secure, however all the wires are exposed and it is hard to place one in the middle. Other than that and the point-to-point soldering, I really did not have any problems.
Like stated in the video, I would have improved these things:
- Use constant-current LED drivers
- Add second override switch
- Feature: first step always on at night
- Route PCB with FTDI, ISP or Arduino socket on it.
- Made duty cycle vary exponentially with brightness to cancel out the logarithmic perception of brightness. I almost did this, but the effect was not noticable enough for me to spend a lot of time on it. I left it in the code as a large array. (it should be placed in program memory)
I accomplished the objective of lighting up the stairs as well as adding some extra features like daylight detection. After a long time, I finally completed the documentation and edited together the film I captured so long ago! I feel accomplished.
People like you and me have succeeded in banishing the darkness! Publish a video to YouTube, link to it in the comments, and I will showcase it here. Include a link to this page in your video.
Joshua Mauldin 2016-10-16